What is raw water treatment process?
The raw water is delivered to the headworks of the water treatment plant where the first of 5 major unit water treatment processes start the treatment to make the water safe to drink. The 5 major unit processes include chemical coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration, and disinfection (described below).
What are the steps of a water treatment plant?
Water treatment steps
- Coagulation. Coagulation is often the first step in water treatment.
- Flocculation. Flocculation follows the coagulation step.
- Sedimentation. Sedimentation is one of the steps water treatment plants use to separate out solids from the water.
Why raw water treatment is important?
A raw water treatment system might be made up of the technologies necessary to remove any number of the following: Suspended and colloidal solids: they can cause unpleasant odors in food and beverage products, foul process equipment, and create energy losses for your plant.
What is the purpose of raw water?
Raw water can be used for many purposes, such as cooling water, water for rinsing and chemical production, purified water, and drinking water. However, due to the possible contaminants, raw water must be treated before it is allowed for human consumption or industrial use.
What is first step of raw water treatment?
The first step is coagulation, which involves adding chemicals to the water. That causes small particles to adhere to one another, or coagulate. The second step is called flocculation, in which larger particles called flocc form after coagulation.
What is the turbidity of raw water?
Turbidity is how murky or hazy water seems due to suspended particles. The more suspended particles, the higher the turbidity. Turbidity is used to visually measure water quality. In raw water, turbidity is very common.
What is water raw material?
A water molecule consists of two atoms of hydrogen bonded to one atom of oxygen. The chemical symbol is H 2 O. Water usually also contains a wide range of organic and inorganic materials in solution or suspension.
What is the pH of raw water?
Pure water has a pH of 7 and is considered “neutral” because it has neither acidic nor basic qualities.
What is second step of raw water treatment?
After the water flows through the gravity sand filter, the next step is typically disinfection or chlorination to kill the bacteria in the water.
What chemical is used for water treatment?
Chemicals that are used are for instance sodium chloride, potassium chloride, citric acid and chlorine dioxide. Chlorine dioxide cleansing serves the removal of organic contaminants on ion exchange resins. Prior to every cleaning treatment resins should be regenerated.
What is BOD and COD in ETP?
The biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) represents the amount of dissolved oxygen (DO) consumed by biological organisms when they decompose organic matter in water. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) is the amount of oxygen consumed when the water sample is chemically oxidised.
What is the BOD in water?
BOD is a measure of the amount of oxygen required to remove waste organic matter from water in the process of decomposition by aerobic bacteria (those bacteria that live only in an environment containing oxygen).
What is the fourth step of raw water treatment?
In the fourth step called ozonation, plant workers add a gas called ozone to destroy bacteria and other microorganisms as well as to improve taste. From there, the water is filtered using granular activated carbon to remove any fine particles.